in the Polish People's Republic, became the first non-Italian pope in 455 years. 21st century In 2005, following the death of John Paul II, Pope Benedict XVI, head of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith under John Paul, was elected. The liturgies of the Eucharist and the other sacraments vary from rite to rite based on differing theological emphasis. 348 349 In the 193639 Spanish Civil War, the Catholic hierarchy allied with Franco's Nationalists against the Popular Front government, 350 citing as justification Republican violence against the church. It is described as "the source and summit of the Christian life".